Head, Face and Throat

Muscle Attachments

Muscle Images

Scalp / EyelidOccipitalisSuperior nuchal line of the occipital bone, mastoid part of the temporal boneGalea aponeuroticaWrinkles eyebrow
Scalp / EyelidFrontalisGalea aponeuroticaMastoid processWrinkles eyebrow
Scalp / EyelidOrbicularis OculiFrontal bone; medial palpebral ligament; lacrimal boneLateral palpebral rapheCloses eyelids
Scalp / EyelidCorrugator SuperciliiSuperciliary archesForehead skin, near eyebrowWrinkles forehead
Scalp / EyelidDepressor SuperciliiMedial orbital rimMedial aspect of bony orbitDepression of eyebrow
ExtraocularLevator Palpebrae SuperiorisSphenoid boneTarsal plate, upper eyelidRetracts / elevates eyelid
ExtraocularSuperior TarsalUnderside of levator palpebrae superiorisSuperior tarsal plate of the eyelidRaise the upper eyelid
ExtraocularSuperior RectusAnnulus of Zinn at the orbital apex7.5 mm superior to the corneal limbusElevates, adducts, and rotates medially the eye
ExtraocularInferior RectusAnnulus of Zinn at the orbital apex6.5 mm inferior to the corneal limbusDepression and adduction
ExtraocularMedial RectusAnnulus of Zinn at the orbital apex5.5 mm medial to the corneal limbusAdducts the eyeball
ExtraocularLateral RectusAnnulus of Zinn at the orbital apex7 mm temporal to the corneal limbusAbducts the eyeball
ExtraocularSuperior ObliqueAnnulus of Zinn at the orbital apex, medial to optic canalOuter posterior quadrant of the eyeballPrimary: intorsion. Secondary:abduct (laterally rotate) and depress the eyeball
ExtraocularInferior ObliqueOrbital surface of the maxilla, lateral to the lacrimal grooveLaterally onto the eyeball, deep to the lateral rectus, by a short flat tendonExtorsion, elevation, abduction
IntraocularIris DilatorPupil dilation
IntraocularIris SphincterConstricts pupil
EarAuricularesGaleal aponeurosisFront of the helix, cranial surface of the pinna(Wiggle ears)
EarTemporoparietalisAuriculares musclesGalea aponeurotica(Wiggle ears)
EarStapediusNeck of stapesControl the amplitude of sound waves to the inner ear
EarTensor tympaniEustachian tubeHandle of the malleusTensing the tympanic membrane
NoseProcerusFrom fascia over the lower of the nasal boneSkin of the lower part of the forehead between the eyebrowsDraws down the medial angle of the eyebrow giving expressions of frowning
NoseNasalisMaxillaNasal boneCompresses bridge, depresses tip of nose, elevates corners of nostrils
NoseDilatator NarisMargin of the nasal notch of the maxilla, greater and lesser alar cartilagesSkin near the margin of the nostrilDilation of nostrils
NoseDepressor Septi NasiIncisive fossa of the maxillaNasal septum and back part of the alar part of nasalis muscleDepression of nasal septum
NoseLevator Labii Superioris Alaeque NasiMaxillaNostril and upper lipDilates the nostril; elevates the upper lip and wing of the nose
MouthLevator anguli orisMaxillaModiolus of mouthSmile (elevates angle of mouth)
MouthDepressor anguli orisTubercle of mandibleModiolus of mouthDepresses angle of mouth
MouthLevator labii superiorisMedial infra-orbital marginSkin and muscle of the upper lip (labii superioris)Elevates the upper lip
MouthDepressor labii inferiorisOblique line of the mandible, between the symphysis and the mental foramenIntegument of the lower lip, Orbicularis oris fibers, its fellow of the opposite sideDepress the lower lip
MouthZygomaticus majorAnterior of zygomaticModiolus of mouthDraws angle of mouth upward and laterally
MouthZygomaticus minorZygomatic boneSkin of the upper lipElevates upper lip
MouthMentalisAnterior mandibleChinElevates and wrinkles skin of chin, protrudes lower lip
MouthBuccinatorAlveolar processes of the maxillary bone and mandible, pterygomandibular rapheIn the fibres of the orbicularis orisCompress the cheeks against the teeth (blowing), mastication.
MouthOrbicularis orisMaxilla and mandibleSkin around the lipsPucker the lips
MouthRisoriusParotid fasciaModiolusDraw back angle of mouth
MouthMasseterZygomatic arch and maxillaCoronoid process and ramus of mandibleElevation (as in closing of the mouth) and retraction of mandible
MouthTemporalisTemporal lines on the parietal bone of the skullCoronoid process of the mandibleElevation and retraction of mandible
MouthLateral PterygoidGreat wing of sphenoid and pterygoid plateCondyle of mandibleDepresses mandible
MouthMedial PterygoidDeep head: medial side of lateral pterygoid plate behind the upper teeth; superficial head: pyramidal process of palatine bone and maxillary tuberosityMedial angle of the mandibleElevates mandible, closes jaw, helps lateral pterygoids in moving the jaw from side to side
Tongue - ExtrinsicGenioglossusSuperior part of mental spine of mandible (symphysis menti)Dorsum of tongue and body of hyoidComplex - Inferior fibers protrude the tongue, middle fibers depress the tongue, and its superior fibers draw the tip back and down
Tongue - ExtrinsicHyoglossusHyoidSide of the tongueDepresses tongue
Tongue - ExtrinsicChondroglossusLesser cornu and body of the hyoid boneIntrinsic muscular fibers of the tongueDepresses tongue (some consider this muscle to be part of hyoglossus)
Tongue - ExtrinsicStyloglossusStyloid process of temporal boneTongueElevates and retracts tongue
Tongue - IntrinsicSuperior longitudinalClose to the epiglottis, from the median fibrous septumEdges of the tongueRetracts the tongue with the inferior longitudinal muscle, making the tongue short and thick
Tongue - IntrinsicTransversusMedian fibrous septumSides of the tongueMakes the tongue narrow and elongated
Tongue - IntrinsicInferior longitudinalRoot of the tongueApex of the tongue
Soft PalateLevator veli palatiniTemporal bone, Eustachian tubePalatine aponeurosisElevates soft palate
Soft PalateTensor veli palatiniMedial pterygoid plate of the sphenoid bonePalatine aponeurosisTension of the soft palate
Soft PalateMusculus uvulaeHard palatePalatine aponeurosis
Soft PalatePalatoglossusPalatine aponeurosisTongueRaising the back part of the tongue
Soft PalatePalatopharyngeusPalatine aponeurosis and hard palateUpper border of thyroid cartilage (blends with constrictor fibers)Pulls pharynx and larynx
PharynxPharyngeal Constrictor InferiorCricoid and thyroid cartilagePharyngeal rapheSwallowing
PharynxPharyngeal Constrictor MiddleHyoid bonePharyngeal rapheSwallowing
PharynxPharyngeal Constrictor SuperiorMedial pterygoid plate, pterygomandibular raphé, alveolar processPharyngeal raphe, pharyngeal tubercleSwallowing
PharynxStylopharyngeusStyloid process (temporal)Thyroid cartilage (pharynx)Elevate the larynx, elevate the pharynx, swallowing
PharynxSalpingopharyngeusCartilage of the Eustachian tubePosterior fasciculus of the pharyngopalatinus muscleRaise the nasopharynx
LarynxCricothyroidAnterior and lateral cricoid cartilageInferior cornu and lamina of the thyroid cartilageTension and elongation of the vocal folds (has minor adductory effect)
LarynxCricoarytenoid PosteriorPosterior part of the cricoidMuscular process of the arytenoid cartilageAbducts and laterally rotates the cartilage, pulling the vocal ligaments away from the midline and forward and so opening the rima glottidis
LarynxCricoarytenoid LateralLateral part of the arch of the cricoidMuscular process of the arytenoid cartilageAdduct and medially rotate the cartilage, pulling the vocal ligaments towards the midline and backwards and so closing off the rima glottidis
LarynxArytenoidArytenoid cartilage on one sideArytenoid cartilage on opposite sideApproximate the arytenoid cartilages (close rima glottidis)
LarynxThyroarytenoidInner surface of the thyroid cartilage (anterior aspect)Anterior surface of arytenoid cartilageThickens the vocal folds and decreases length; also helps helps to adduct the vocal folds during speech