Lower Limb

Muscle Attachments

Muscle Images

Hip - AnteriorIliopsoasIliac fossa (iliacus, sacrum (iliacus), spine (T12, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5) & intervertebral discs (psoas major, psoas minor)Femur - lesser trochanter (psoas major/minor), shaft below lesser trochanter (iliacus), tendon of psoas major & femur (iliacus)Flexion of hip (psoas major/minor, iliacus), spine rotation (psoas major/minor)
Hip - AnteriorPsoas majorLower spineIn the lesser trochanter of the femurFlexes and rotates laterally thigh
Hip - AnteriorPsoas minorSide of T12+L1 and IV Disc betweenPectineal line [disambiguation needed] and iliopectineal eminenceWeak trunk flexor
Hip - AnteriorIliacusIliac fossaLesser trochanter of femurFlexes and rotates laterally thigh
Hip - PosteriorGluteus maximus muscleGluteal surface of ilium, lumbar fascia, sacrum, sacrotuberous ligamentGluteal tuberosity of the femur, iliotibial tractExternal rotation and extension of the hip joint, supports the extended knee through the iliotibial tract, chief antigravity muscle in sitting
Hip - LateralGluteus medius muscleGluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus maximusGreater trochanter of the femurAbduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh.
Hip - LateralGluteus MinimusGluteal surface of ilium, under gluteus medius.Greater trochanter of the femurWorks in concert with gluteus medius: abduction of the hip; preventing adduction of the hip. Medial rotation of thigh.
Hip - AnteriorTensor fasciae lataeIliac crestIliotibial tractThigh - flexion, medial rotation. Trunk stabilization.
Hip - DeepPiriformisSacrumGreater trochanterRotate laterally (outward) the thigh
Hip - DeepObturator externusObturator foramen and obturatory membraneMedial aspect of greater trochanter of femurAdduct thigh, rotate laterally thigh
Hip - DeepObturator internusIschiopubic ramus & obturator membraneMedial aspect of the Greater trochanterAbducts & rotates laterally thigh, and stabiliser of the hip during walking
Hip - DeepInferior gemellusIschial tuberosityObturator internus tendonRotates laterally thigh
Hip - DeepSuperior gemellusSpine of the ischiumObturator internus tendonRotates laterally thigh
Hip - DeepQuadratus femorisIschial tuberosityIntertrochanteric crestLateral rotation of thigh
Thigh - MedialSartoriusSuperior to the anterior superior iliac spineMedial side of the upper tibia in the pes anserinusFlexion, lateral rotation and abduction of thigh; flexion and medial rotation of leg
Thigh - MedialGracilisIschiopubic ramusTibia (pes anserinus)Flexes hip, knee
Thigh - MedialPectineusPubis - superior pubic ramusLesser trochanter, linea asperaThigh - flexion, adduction, medial rotation
Thigh - MedialAdductor brevisAnterior surface of the inferior ramus and body of the pubisThe lesser trochanter and linea aspera of the femurAdduction of hip
Thigh - MedialAdductor longusPubic body just below the pubic crestMiddle third of linea asperaAdduction of thigh
Thigh - MedialAdductor magnusPubis, tuberosity of the ischiumFemurAdduction of hip
Thigh - AnteriorQuadriceps femorisCombined rectus femoris and vastus musclesPatella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligamentKnee extension; Hip flexion (R.Fem. Only)
Thigh - AnteriorRectus femorisAnterior inferior iliac spine and the exterior surface of the bony ridge which forms the iliac portion of the acetabulumPatella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligamentKnee extension; hip flexion
Thigh - AnteriorVastus lateralisGreater trochanter, Intertrochanteric line, and Linea aspera of the FemurPatella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligamentExtends and stabilizes knee
Thigh - AnteriorVastus intermediusAntero/ lateral femurPatella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligamentExtends knee
Thigh - AnteriorVastus medialisFemurPatella and Tibial tuberosity via the Patellar ligamentExtends knee
Thigh - AnteriorArticularis genuFemurSuprapatellar bursaPulling the suprapatellar bursa during extension of the knee.
Thigh - PosteriorBiceps femorisTuberosity of the ischium, linea aspera, femurThe head of the fibula which articulates with the back of the lateral tibial condyleFlexes knee joint, laterally rotates knee joint (when knee is flexed), extends hip joint (long head only)
Thigh - PosteriorSemitendinosusTuberosity of the ischiumPes anserinusFlex knee, extend hip joint
Thigh - PosteriorSemimembranosusIschial tuberosityMedial surface of tibiaHip extension, Knee flexion
Leg - AnteriorTibialis anteriorBody of tibiaMedial cuneiform and first metatarsal bones of the footDorsiflex and invert the foot
Leg - AnteriorExtensor hallucis longusMiddle portion of the fibula on the anterior surface and the interosseous membraneDorsal side of the base of the distal phalanx of the HalluxExtends the big toe and assists in dorsiflexion of the foot at the ankle. Also is a weak invertor
Leg - AnteriorExtensor digitorum longusLateral Condyle of tibia and superior three quarters of interosseous membraneMiddle and Distal phalanges of lateral four digitsExtension of toes and ankle
Leg - AnteriorPeroneus TertiusDistal anterior surface of the fibulaDorsal surface of fifth metatarsal, near the baseDorsiflexes and everts foot
Leg - PosteriorGastrocnemiusSuperior to articular surfaces of both condyles of the femurCalcaneusPlantarflexion, flexion of knee (minor)
Leg - PosteriorSoleusFibula, medial border of tibia (soleal line)Tendo calcaneusPlantarflexion
Leg - PosteriorPlantarisLateral supracondylar ridge of femur above lateral head of gastrocnemiusTendo calcaneus (medial side, deep to gastrocnemius tendon)Plantar flexes foot and flexes knee
Leg - PosteriorPopliteusMiddle facet of the lateral surface of the lateral femoral condylePosteromedial tibia, inferior to tibial condyles Medial rotation and flexion of knee
Leg - MedialFlexor hallucis longusFibula, posterior aspect of upper thirdBase of distal phalanx of halluxFlexes all joints of the Hallux, plantar flexion of the ankle joint
Leg - MedialFlexor digitorum longusPosterior surface of the body of the tibiaPlantar surface of the bases of the distal phalanges of lateral four digitsPrimary action is Flex digits
Leg - MedialTibialis posteriorPosteromedial borders of the tibia and fibulaTuberosity of navicular, sustentaculum tali, plantar surface of all cuneiforms, cuboid and bases of second, third and fourth metatarsalsInversion of the foot, plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle
Leg - LateralPeroneus longusHead and upper two-thirds of the fibulaPlantar surface of first metatarsal, medial cuneiformPlantarflexion, eversion
Leg - LateralPeroneus brevisLower two thirds of lateral surface of fibulaBase of the fifth metatarsalPlantarflexion, eversion
Foot - DorsalExtensor digitorum brevisCalcaneusToesExtends digits 2, 3, and 4
Foot - DorsalExtensor hallucis brevisCalcaneusBase of proximal phalanx of halluxExtension of hallux
Foot - Plantar - First LayerAbductor hallucisMedial process of calcaneus, flexor retinaculum [disambiguation needed], plantar aponeurosisMedial side of base of proximal phalanx of first digitAbducts hallux
Foot - Plantar - First LayerFlexor digitorum brevisMedial process of calcaneus, plantar aponeurosis, intermuscular septa [disambiguation needed]Middle phalanges of digits 2-5Flexes lateral four toes
Foot - Plantar - First LayerAbductor digiti minimiPlantar aponeurosisFifth toe or PhalangesFlex and abduct the fifth toe
Foot - Plantar - Second LayerQuadratus plantaeCalcaneusTendons of Flexor Digitorum LongusAssists Flexor Digitorum Longus in flexion of DIP joints
Foot - Plantar - Second LayerLumbrical muscleTendons of flexor digitorum longusMedial aspect of extensor expansion over lateral four digitsFlex proximal phalanges and extend middle and distal phalanges of lateral four digits
Foot - Plantar - Third LayerFlexor hallucis brevisPlantar surface of cuneiform bonesMedial and lateral sesamoid bones of first metatarsalFlex hallux
Foot - Plantar - Third LayerAdductor hallucisOblique Head: proximal ends of middle 3 metatarsal bones; Transverse Head: MTP ligaments of middle 3 toesLateral side of base of first phalanx of the 1st toeAdducts hallux
Foot - Plantar - Third LayerFlexor digiti minimi brevisFifth metatarsal bonePhalanx of the fifth toeFlex and adduct the fifth toe
Foot - Plantar - Fourth LayerDorsal interosseiMetatarsalsProximal phalangesAbduct toes
Foot - Plantar - Fourth LayerPlantar interosseiMetatarsalsProximal phalangesAdduct toes