Upper Limb

Muscle Attachments

Muscle Images

Upper Limb - Vertebral ColumnTrapeziusDown the midline, from the external occipital protuberance, the nuchal ligament, the medial part of the superior nuchal line, and the spinous processes of the vertebrae C7-T12At the shoulders, into the lateral third of the clavicle, the acromion process and into the spine of the scapulaDescending (superior) part elevates; ascending (inferior) part depresses; and middle part (or all parts together) retracts scapula; descending and ascending parts act together to rotate glenoid cavity superiorly
Upper Limb - Vertebral ColumnLatissimus dorsiSpinous processes of thoracic T6-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inferior 3 or 4 ribsFloor of intertubercular groove of the humerusPulls the forelimb dorsally and caudally
Upper Limb - Vertebral ColumnRhomboid majorSpinous processes of the T2 to T5 vertebraeMedial border of the scapula, inferior to the insertion of rhomboid minor muscleRetracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall.
Upper Limb - Vertebral ColumnRhomboid minorNuchal ligaments and spinous processes of C7- to T1 vertebraeMedial border of the scapula, superior to the insertion of rhomboid major muscleRetracts the scapula and rotates it to depress the glenoid cavity. It also fixes the scapula to the thoracic wall.
Upper Limb - Vertebral ColumnLevator scapulaePosterior tubercles of transverse processes of C1 - C4 vertebraeSuperior part of medial border of scapulaElevates scapula and tilts its glenoid cavity inferiorly by rotating scapula
Upper Limb - Thoracic WallPectoralis majorClavicular head: anterior surface of the medial half of the clavicle.; Sternocostal head: anterior surface of the sternum, the superior six costal cartilagesIntertubercular groove of the humerusClavicular head: flexes the humerus; Sternocostal head: extends the humerus; As a whole, adducts and medially rotates the humerus. It also draws the scapula anteriorly and inferiorly.
Upper Limb - Thoracic WallPectoralis minor3rd to 5th ribs, near their costal cartilagesMedial border and superior surface of the coracoid process of the scapulaStabilizes the scapula by drawing it inferiorly and anteriorly against the thoracic wall
Upper Limb - Thoracic WallSubclaviusFirst ribSubclavian groove of clavicleDepression of clavicle
Upper Limb - Thoracic WallSerratus anteriorFleshy slips from the outer surface of upper 8 or 9 ribsCostal aspect of medial margin of the scapulaProtract and stabilize scapula, assists in upward rotation
ShoulderDeltoidLateral third of Clavicle, acromion, spine of the scapulaDeltoid tuberosity of humerusShoulder abduction, flexion and extension
ShoulderTeres majorPosterior aspect of the inferior angle of the scapulaMedial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerusInternal rotation of the humerus
Shoulder - Rotator CuffSupraspinatusSupraspinous fossa of scapulaSuperior facet of greater tubercle of humerusAbduction of arm and stabilizes humerus
Shoulder - Rotator CuffInfraspinatusInfraspinous fossa of the scapulaMiddle facet of greater tubercle of the humerusLateral rotation of arm & Adduction of arm and stabilizes humerus
Shoulder - Rotator CuffTeres minorLateral border of the scapulaInferior facet of greater tubercle of the humerusLaterally rotates and adducts the arm
Shoulder - Rotator CuffSubscapularisSubscapular fossaLesser tubercle of humerusRotates medially humerus; stabilizes shoulder
Upper Arm - AnteriorCoracobrachialisCoracoid process of scapulaMedial humerusAdducts humerus
Upper Arm - AnteriorBiceps brachiiShort head: coracoid process of the scapula. Long head: supraglenoid tubercleRadial tuberosityFlexes elbow and supinates forearm
Upper Arm - AnteriorBrachialisAnterior surface of the humerus, particularly the distal half of this boneCoronoid process and the tuberosity of the ulnaFlexion at elbow joint
Upper Arm - PosteriorTriceps brachiiLong head: infraglenoid tubercle;medial head: arises distally from the groove of the radial nerve; from the dorsal (back) surface of the humerus; from the medial intermuscular septum; and its distal part also arises from the lateral intermuscular septum; lateral head: dorsal surface of the humerus, lateral and proximal to the groove of the radial nerve, from the greater tubercle down to the region of the lateral intermuscular septumOlecranon process of ulnaExtends forearm, caput longum adducts shoulder
Upper Arm - PosteriorAnconeusLateral epicondyle of the humerusLateral surface of the olecranon process and the superior part of the posterior ulnaPartly blended in with the triceps, which it assists in extension of the forearm. Stabilises the elbow and abducts the ulna during pronation.
ForearmPronator teresHumeral head: medial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon); Ulnar head: coronoid process of the ulnaRadiusPronation of forearm, flexes elbow
ForearmFlexor carpi radialisMedial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)Bases of second and third metacarpal bonesFlexion and abduction at wrist
ForearmPalmaris longusMedial epicondyle of humerus (common flexor tendon)Palmar aponeurosisWrist flexor
ForearmFlexor carpi ulnarisMedial epicondyle of the humerus (common flexor tendon)PisiformFlexion and adduction of wrist
ForearmFlexor digitorum superficialisMedial epicondyle of the humerus (common flexor tendon), as well as parts of the radius and ulna.PhalangesFlexor of fingers (primarily at proximal interphalangeal joints)
ForearmPronator quadratusMedial, anterior surface of the ulnaLateral, anterior surface of the radiusPronates the forearm
ForearmFlexor digitorum profundusUlnaDistal phalangesFlex hand, interphalangeal joints
ForearmFlexor pollicis longusThe middle 2/4 of the volar [disambiguation needed] surface of the radius and the adjacent interosseus membrane. (Also occasionally a small origin slightly on the medial epicondyle of the ulna.)The base of the distal phalanx of the thumbFlexion of the thumb
ForearmBrachioradialisLateral supracondylar ridge of the humerusDistal radius (Radial styloid process)Flexion of forearm
ForearmExtensor carpi radialis longusLateral supracondylar ridge2nd metacarpalExtensor at the wrist joint, abducts the hand at the wrist
ForearmExtensor carpi radialis brevisHumerus at the anterior of lateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon)Base of the 3rd metacarpalExtensor and abductor of the hand at the wrist joint
ForearmExtensor digitorumLateral epicondyle (common extensor tendon)2nd through 5th phalangesExtension of hand and fingers
ForearmExtensor digiti minimiThe anterior portion of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus (common extensor tendon)Extensor expansion, located at the base of the proximal phalanx of the finger on the dorsal sideExtends the little finger at all joints
ForearmExtensor carpi ulnarisCommon extensor tendon (lateral epicondyle), ulna5th metacarpalExtends and adducts the wrist
ForearmSupinatorLateral epicondyle of the humerus, supinator crest of ulna, radial collateral ligament, annular ligamentLateral proximal radial shaftSupinates forearm
ForearmExtensor indicisUlnaIndex finger (extensor hood)Extends index finger, wrist
ForearmAbductor pollicis longusUlna, radial styloid processFirst metacarpalAbduction, extension of thumb
ForearmExtensor pollicis brevisRadiusThumb, proximal phalanxExtension of thumb at metacarpophalangeal joint
ForearmExtensor pollicis longusUlnaThumb, distal phalanxExtension of the thumb (metacarpophalangeal and interphalangeal)
ThenarOpponens pollicisTrapezium and transverse carpal ligamentMetacarpal bone of the thumb on its radial sideOpposition of the thumb
ThenarFlexor pollicis brevisTrapezoid, flexor retinaculumThumb, proximal phalanxFlexion of thumb
ThenarAbductor pollicis brevisTransverse carpal ligament, the scaphoid and trapeziumRadial base of proximal phalanx of thumb and the thumb extensor [disambiguation needed]sAbduction of thumb
ThenarAdductor pollicisTransverse head: anterior body of the third metacarpal; Oblique head: bases of the second and the third metacarpals and the adjacent trapezoid and capitate bones,Medial side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the thumb and the ulnar sesamoidAdducts the thumb at the carpometacarpal joint
WristPalmaris brevisFlexor retinaculum (medial), palmar aponeurosisPalmWrinkle skin of palm
HypothenarAbductor digiti minimiPisiformBase of the proximal phalanx of the 5th digit on the ulnar or medial sideAbduction of little finger
HypothenarFlexor digiti minimi brevisHamate boneLittle fingerFlexes little finger
HypothenarOpponens digiti minimiHook of hamate and flexor retinaculumMedial border of 5th metacarpalDraws 5th metacarpal anteriorly and rotates it, bringing little finger (5th digit) into opposition with thumb
Hand IntrinsicLumbricalFlexor digitorum profundusExtensor expansionFlex metacarpophalangeal joints, extend interphalangeal joints
Hand IntrinsicDorsal interosseiMetacarpalsProximal phalangesAbduct finger
Hand IntrinsicPalmar interosseiMetacarpalsProximal phalangeAdduction